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In , Jordan became an independent state officially known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan , but was renamed in to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan after the country captured the West Bank during the Arab—Israeli War and annexed it until it was lost to Israel in Jordan renounced its claim to the territory in , and became one of two Arab states to sign a peace treaty with Israel in The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy , but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.

Jordan has been repeatedly referred to as an "oasis of stability" in a turbulent region. It has been mostly unscathed by the violence that swept the region following the Arab Spring in Jordan is classified as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy.

The Jordanian economy , one of the smallest economies in the region, is attractive to foreign investors based upon a skilled workforce. The oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Jordan dates back at least , years.

Fortified towns and urban centers first emerged in the southern Levant early on in the Bronze Age — BC. These Transjordanian kingdoms were in continuous conflict with the neighbouring Hebrew kingdoms of Israel and Judah , centered west of the Jordan River—though the former was known to have at times controlled small parts east of the river.

Roman legions under Pompey conquered much of the Levant in 63 BC, inaugurating a period of Roman rule that lasted four centuries. The Crusaders constructed several Crusader castles as part of the Lordship of Oultrejordain , including those of Montreal and Al-Karak.

Four centuries of stagnation during Ottoman rule came to an end during World War I by the Arab Revolt ; driven by long-term resentment towards the Ottoman authorities, and growing Arab nationalism.

The British reluctantly accepted Abdullah as ruler of Transjordan. The first organised army in Jordan was established on 22 October , and was named the " Arab Legion ".

Abdullah was succeeded by his son Talal , who would soon abdicate due to illness in favour of his eldest son Hussein.

Jordan signed a military pact with Egypt just before Israel launched a preemptive strike on Egypt to begin the Six-Day War in June , where Jordan and Syria joined the war.

The Arab Spring were large-scale protests that erupted in the Arab World in , demanding economic and political reforms. Jordan sits strategically at the crossroads of the continents of Asia, Africa and Europe, [8] in the Levant area of the Fertile Crescent , a cradle of civilization.

The east is an arid plateau irrigated by oases and seasonal water streams. In the west, a highland area of arable land and Mediterranean evergreen forestry drops suddenly into the Jordan Rift Valley.

Jordan has a diverse range of habitats, ecosystems and biota due to its varied landscapes and environments. The climate in Jordan varies greatly.

Generally, the further inland from the Mediterranean, greater contrasts in temperature occur and the less rainfall there is. Over 2, plant species have been recorded in Jordan.

The mountainous regions in the northwest are clothed in forests, while further south and east the vegetation becomes more scrubby and transitions to steppe-type vegetation.

Plant species include, Aleppo pine , Sarcopoterium , Salvia dominica , black iris , Tamarix , Anabasis , Artemisia , Acacia , Mediterranean cypress and Phoenecian juniper.

Jordan is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. The judiciary is independent according to the constitution. The king is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the army.

He can declare war and peace, ratify laws and treaties, convene and close legislative sessions, call and postpone elections, dismiss the government and dissolve the parliament.

After a bill is proposed by the government, it must be approved by the House of Representatives then the Senate, and becomes law after being ratified by the king.

A royal veto on legislation can be overridden by a two-thirds vote in a joint session of both houses.

The parliament also has the right of interpellation. The 65 members of the upper Senate are directly appointed by the king, the constitution mandates that they be veteran politicians, judges and generals who previously served in the government or in the House of Representatives.

Courts are divided into three categories: Religious law only extends to matters of personal status such as divorce and inheritance in religious courts, and is partially based on Islamic Sharia law.

The capital city of Jordan is Amman , located in north-central Jordan. These are subdivided into a total of 52 nawahi , which are further divided into neighbourhoods in urban areas or into towns in rural ones.

The current monarch, Abdullah II , ascended to the throne in February after the death of his father King Hussein. However, the underdevelopment of political parties in the country has hampered such moves.

According to Freedom House , Jordan is ranked as the 3rd freest Arab country, and as "partly free" in the Freedom in the World report.

The report added "the Arab Spring and the Syrian conflict have led the authorities to tighten their grip on the media and, in particular, the Internet, despite an outcry from civil society".

The first level subdivision in Jordan is the muhafazah or governorate. The governorates are divided into liwa or districts, which are often further subdivided into qda or sub-districts.

The kingdom has followed a pro-Western foreign policy and maintained close relations with the United States and the United Kingdom. Later, Jordan restored its relations with Western countries through its participation in the enforcement of UN sanctions against Iraq and in the Southwest Asia peace process.

There are about 50, Jordanian troops working with the United Nations in peacekeeping missions across the world.

Jordan ranks third internationally in participation in U. In , Jordan joined an aerial bombardment campaign by an international coalition led by the United States against the Islamic State as part of its intervention in the Syrian Civil War.

The first police force in the Jordanian state was organised after the fall of the Ottoman Empire on 11 April After that year the Public Safety Directorate was established.

In the s, it was the first Arab country to include females in its police force. Jordan is classified by the World Bank as an "upper-middle income" country.

Trade and finance combined account for nearly one-third of GDP; transportation and communication, public utilities, and construction account for one-fifth, and mining and manufacturing constitute nearly another fifth.

Jordan enjoys advanced status with the EU, which has facilitated greater access to export to European markets. Jordan incurred billions of dollars in losses because it had to substitute more expensive heavy-fuel oils to generate electricity.

The proportion of well-educated and skilled workers in Jordan is among the highest in the region in sectors such as ICT and industry, due to a relatively modern educational system.

This has attracted large foreign investments to Jordan and has enabled the country to export its workforce to Persian Gulf countries.

This high infrastructural development is necessitated by its role as a transit country for goods and services to Palestine and Iraq. Palestinians use Jordan as a transit country due to the Israeli restrictions and Iraqis use Jordan due to the instability in Iraq.

The Hejaz Railway built during the Ottoman Empire which extended from Damascus to Mecca will act as a base for future railway expansion plans.

Currently, the railway has little civilian activity; it is primarily used for transporting goods. A national railway project is currently undergoing studies and seeking funding sources.

Jordan has three commercial airports, all receiving and dispatching international flights. Amman Civil Airport serves several regional routes and charter flights while Queen Alia International Airport is the major international airport in Jordan and is the hub for Royal Jordanian Airlines , the flag carrier.

The Port of Aqaba is the only port in Jordan. The port was chosen due to it being a transit cargo port for other neighbouring countries, its location between four countries and three continents, being an exclusive gateway for the local market and for the improvements it has recently witnessed.

The tourism sector is considered a cornerstone of the economy and is a large source of employment, hard currency, and economic growth.

In , there were 8 million visitors to Jordan. The majority of tourists coming to Jordan are from European and Arab countries.

According to the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, Jordan is home to around , archaeological and tourist sites. Modern entertainment and recreation in urban areas, mostly in Amman, also attract tourists.

Recently, the nightlife in Amman, Aqaba and Irbid has started to emerge and the number of bars, discos and nightclubs is on the rise.

Moreover, seaside recreation is present on the shores of Aqaba and the Dead Sea through several international resorts.

Jordan has been a medical tourism destination in the Middle East since the s. Jordanian doctors and medical staff have gained experience in dealing with war patients through years of receiving such cases from various conflict zones in the region.

It contains 10 times more salt than the average ocean, which makes it impossible to sink in. The high salt concentration of the Dead Sea has been proved as being therapeutic for many skin diseases.

The uniqueness of this lake attracts several Jordanian and foreign vacationers, which boosted investments in the hotel sector in the area.

Multiple canals and pipelines were proposed to reduce its recession, which had begun causing sinkholes. The Red Sea—Dead Sea Water Conveyance project, carried out by Jordan, will provide water to the country and to Israel and Palestine, while the brine will be carried to the Dead Sea to help stabilise its levels.

The first phase of the project is scheduled to begin in and to be completed in Natural gas was discovered in Jordan in , however, the estimated size of the reserve discovered was about billion cubic feet , a minuscule quantity compared with its oil-rich neighbours.

Regional instability over the decades halted oil and gas supply to the kingdom from various sources, making it incur billions of dollars in losses.

Jordan built a liquified natural gas port in Aqaba in to temporarily substitute the supply, while formulating a strategy to rationalize energy consumption and to diversify its energy sources.

Jordan has the 5th largest oil-shale reserves in the world, which could be commercially exploited in the central and northwestern regions of the country.

The extraction of oil-shale had been delayed a couple of years due to technological difficulties; and the relatively higher costs. The original plan involved constructing two MW reactors but has been scrapped due to financial constraints.

The most promising segment of this sector is construction. Petra Engineering Industries Company, which is considered to be one of the main pillars of Jordanian industry, has gained international recognition with its air-conditioning units reaching NASA.

It manufactures all types of military products, many of which are presented at the bi-annually held international military exhibition SOFEX.

This growth is occurring across multiple industries, including information and communications technology ICT and nuclear technology.

More than companies are active in telecom, information technology and video game development. There are companies operating in active technologies and start-up companies.

Nuclear science and technology is also expanding. Jordan is a home to 2,, Palestinian refugees as of December ; most of them, but not all, were granted Jordanian citizenship.

In the past, Jordan had given many Palestinian refugees citizenship, however recently Jordanian citizenship is given only in rare cases.

West Bank Palestinians with family in Jordan or Jordanian citizenship were issued yellow cards guaranteeing them all the rights of Jordanian citizenship if requested.

Up to 1,, Iraqis moved to Jordan following the Iraq War in , [] and most of them have returned. In , their number in Jordan was , The kingdom has continued to demonstrate hospitality, despite the substantial strain the flux of Syrian refugees places on the country.

The effects are largely affecting Jordanian communities, as the vast majority of Syrian refugees do not live in camps.

The refugee crisis effects include competition for job opportunities, water resources and other state provided services, along with the strain on the national infrastructure.

In , there were up to , Assyrian Christians ; most are Eastern Aramaic speaking refugees from Iraq. There are around 1.

Sunni Islam is the dominant religion in Jordan. Many Shia are Iraqi and Lebanese refugees. Jordan contains some of the oldest Christian communities in the world, dating as early as the 1st century AD after the crucifixion of Jesus.

The study excluded minority Christian groups and the thousands of western, Iraqi and Syrian Christians residing in Jordan. The official language is Modern Standard Arabic , a literary language taught in the schools.

Jordanian Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. English , though without official status, is widely spoken throughout the country and is the de facto language of commerce and banking, as well as a co-official status in the education sector; almost all university-level classes are held in English and almost all public schools teach English along with Standard Arabic.

The largest museum in Jordan is The Jordan Museum. Museums outside Amman include the Aqaba Archaeological Museum. Music in Jordan is now developing with a lot of new bands and artists, who are now popular in the Middle East.

Football is the most popular sport in Jordan. This was the highest that Jordan had advanced in the World Cup qualifying rounds since Less common sports are gaining popularity.

Rugby is increasing in popularity, a Rugby Union is recognised by the Jordan Olympic Committee which supervises three national teams.

Local basketball teams include: As the 8th largest producer of olives in the world, olive oil is the main cooking oil in Jordan.

Ful medames is another well-known appetiser. A typical Jordanian meze often contains koubba maqliya , labaneh , baba ghanoush , tabbouleh , olives and pickles.

Jordanian wine and beer are also sometimes used. The same dishes, served without alcoholic drinks, can also be termed "muqabbilat" starters in Arabic.

The most distinctive Jordanian dish is mansaf , the national dish of Jordan. The dish is a symbol for Jordanian hospitality and is influenced by the Bedouin culture.

Mansaf is eaten on different occasions such as funerals, weddings and on religious holidays. It consists of a plate of rice with meat that was boiled in thick yogurt, sprayed with pine nuts and sometimes herbs.

Life expectancy in Jordan was around Jordan prides itself on its health services, some of the best in the region. On 1 June , Jordan Hospital as the biggest private hospital was the first general specialty hospital to gain the international accreditation JCAHO.

The Jordanian educational system comprises 2 years of pre-school education, 10 years of compulsory basic education, and two years of secondary academic or vocational education, after which the students sit for the General Certificate of Secondary Education Exam Tawjihi exams.

In Jordan there are researchers per million people, while the world average is per million. Jordan has 10 public universities, 19 private universities and 54 community colleges, of which 14 are public, 24 private and others affiliated with the Jordanian Armed Forces , the Civil Defense Department, the Ministry of Health and UNRWA.

An additional 20, Jordanians pursue higher education abroad primarily in the United States and Europe. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country.

For other uses, see Jordan disambiguation. Arab country in Western Asia. Timeline of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. King Abdullah II , Monarch since Omar Razzaz , Prime Minister since Largest cities or towns in Jordan [1].

Map Governorate Capital Population Syria. Foreign relations of Jordan. Science and technology in Jordan. Marsa Zayed mosque in Aqaba.

An eastern Orthodox church during a snowstorm in Amman. Jordanian art , Cinema of Jordan , and Music of Jordan. Health in Jordan and Education in Jordan.

Jordan portal Middle East portal. Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. Retrieved 12 June Jordan Department of Statistics.

Retrieved 24 November United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 14 September Encyclopedia of World Geography.

Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 9 April Archived from the original on 2 August Retrieved 8 June The Arab States and the Arab League: The Last Arab Safe Haven".

Retrieved 12 October Archived from the original on 2 October Management and International Business Issues in Jordan. Retrieved 12 March Mercer Dictionary of the Bible.

Palestine Under the Moslems: Watt for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Muslims, Mongols and the struggle against the Crusades.

Retrieved 16 June Scientists discover oldest evidence of bread". Retrieved 17 July The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant.

Trustees of the British Museum. Archived from the original on 18 October Dating to the end of the eighth millennium BC, they are among the earliest large-scale representations of the human form.

The Chalcolithic period BC ". Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 4 July The Archaeology of Society in the Holy Land. Writing and Literacy in the World of Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age.

Allowing for national newspapers, and travel around the country far earlier than in other places. They gave pride of place to such moral issues as sportsmanship and fair play.

Football proved highly attractive to the urban working classes, which introduced the rowdy spectator to the sports world.

In some sports, there was significant controversy in the fight for amateur purity especially in rugby and rowing. New games became popular almost overnight, including golf, lawn tennis, cycling and hockey.

Women were much more likely to enter these sports than the old established ones. The aristocracy and landed gentry, with their ironclad control over land rights, dominated hunting, shooting, fishing and horse racing.

Political responsibility for sport is a devolved matter. As England has no parliament of her own, the United Kingdom Department of Culture, Media and Sport which is headed by a cabinet minister -though the Minister for Sport and Tourism is not in the cabinet- deals with English sport in addition to United Kingdom-wide sports.

The Minister sets out the strategic policy objectives for Sport Wales , who are responsible for the development and promotion of sport and active lifestyles in Wales.

As the Northern Ireland Assembly was reduced in size and a number of departments removed it is not currently March clear who holds political responsibility for Sport in Northern Ireland.

However virtually every team sport is organised on either an all Ireland or United Kingdom-wide basis, with football and netball being the only exceptions.

The Sport and Recreation Alliance is the representative body for sports organisations in the United Kingdom, including federations, players associations, mabagers associations and regional organisations.

A large majority of the funding for elite sport in the United Kingdom is commercially generated, but this is concentrated heavily on a few sports.

Other major sports have a turnover in low nine figures or the tens of millions. Athletics, and also most sports outside the top ten or so in popularity, are heavily dependent on public funding.

The government agency which funnels this is UK Sport , which has affiliates in each of the home nations, for example Sport England.

These agencies are also responsible for distributing money raised for sport by the National Lottery. In , when it was announced London would host the Games, UK Sport announced funding plans which were more focused than ever before on rewarding sports which have delivered Olympic success, and as a corollary penalising those which have not.

UK Sport also provides money for the recreational side of the main team sports, even football. Other sports benefit from special financial provision.

British tennis is subsidised by the profits of the Wimbledon Championships , which are in the tens of millions of pounds each year.

Horse racing benefits from a levy on betting. Following the Budget from 21 March there will be only few tax breaks to British sport in the near future.

A MORI poll found: The British media is dominated by United Kingdom-wide outlets, with local media playing a much smaller role.

Traditionally the BBC played a dominant role in televising sport , providing extensive high-quality advertisement free coverage and free publicity, in exchange for being granted broadcast rights for low fees.

ITV broadcast a smaller portfolio of events. In the early s this arrangement was shaken up by the arrival of pay-TV. BSkyB based its early marketing largely on its acquisition of top division English league football, which was renamed The Premiership as part of the deal.

It has subsequently acquired many more top rights in other sports. However, Sky tends to focus on competitions which can fill its specialist sports channels on a regular basis, and many events are still shown on free to air television, especially annual and quadrennial events such as Wimbledon and the Olympics.

This is often used when all four nations have an International football match on the same evening, but can also be used to show minority interest sports in the country where they are most appreciated for example BBC One Scotland may show the shinty cup final, while BBC One Wales shows a rugby union match between two Welsh sides.

There are also regulations which prevent certain listed events from being sold exclusively to pay television. Radio sports coverage is also important.

It now has a commercial rival called TalkSport , but this has not acquired anywhere near as many exclusive contracts as Sky Sports.

BBC Local Radio also provides extensive coverage of sport, giving more exposure to second-tier clubs which get limited national coverage.

All of the national newspapers except the Financial Times devote many pages to sport every day. Local newspapers cover local clubs at all levels and there are hundreds of weekly and monthly sports magazines.

Four sports in the United Kingdom operate high-profile professional leagues. Football is the most popular sport and is played from August to May.

Rugby league is traditionally a winter sport, but since the late s the elite competition has been played in the summer to minimise competition for attention with football.

Rugby union is also a winter sport. Cricket is played in the Summer, from April to September. The modern global game of football evolved out of traditional football games played in England in the 19th century and today is the highest profile sport in the United Kingdom by a very wide margin.

Each of the four countries in the UK organises its own football league; there are however a few teams who play in another country. The only major national team competition won by a Home Nation is the World Cup , which England hosted and won, though clubs in both the Scottish and English domestic leagues have had success in European club competitions, most notably the UEFA Champions League or its predecessor the European Cup.

Liverpool , with 5 wins, is the most successful English, and British, team in European football, while the competition has also been won by Manchester United 3 times in total, Nottingham Forest twice, and Aston Villa , from Birmingham and Chelsea from London once each.

The Welsh football league system includes the Welsh Premier League and regional leagues. These leagues have a relatively low profile as rugby union is the national sport of Wales and the top three Welsh football clubs play in the English league system; in addition, one Welsh Premiership club, The New Saints , play their home matches on the English side of the border in Oswestry.

Windsor Park , Linfield F. England and Scotland have both produced winners of each of these competitions. For years until , England , Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland competed annually in the British Home Championship but these ended for a variety of reasons.

When the idea was first proposed to bring back the competition, the English FA had reservations, and so it was contested by the other three home nations and the Republic of Ireland, who were the first host nation and winners.

The tournament was intended to be played biennially to prevent fixture congestion during World Cup qualification years with the event to be held at the Millennium stadium in Cardiff, the tournament was cancelled after the first year as very few fans were prepared to travel and the tournament did not create the expected revenues.

Scotland and Wales were drawn against each other in World Cup qualification anyway, and a th anniversary friendly was organised between Scotland and England to celebrate the anniversary of the formation of the English F.

No United Kingdom national team is regularly formed for football events in the Olympics. The early reference to the separate national identities in the United Kingdom is perhaps best illustrated by the game of cricket.

Cricket is claimed to have been invented in England. The national sport of England is cricket, but England has no team of its own, instead fielding a joint team with Wales.

Each summer two foreign national teams visit and play seven Test matches and numerous One Day Internationals , and in the British winter the team tours abroad.

The highest profile rival of the team is the Australian team , with which it competes for The Ashes , one of the most famous trophies in British sport.

There are eighteen professional county clubs , seventeen of them in England and one in Wales. Each summer the county clubs compete in the first class County Championship , which consists of two leagues of nine teams and in which matches are played over four days.

The same teams also play the one day National League , a one-day knock out competition called the Friends Provident Trophy , and the short-form Twenty20 Cup.

Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players. It is by no means equal to football in finance, attendance or coverage, but it has a high profile nonetheless.

It is probably the second most widely covered sport in England and third most widely covered sport in Wales and the fortunes of the England team are closely followed by many people who never attend a live game.

Scotland and Ireland both have their own cricket teams, but the game is neither as popular nor their teams as successful as the English and Welsh team.

Ireland did not receive Test status until , and Scotland still does not have Test status. Since Ireland did not play its first Test until , Scotland still does not play Tests, and both have only recently started to play in full One Day Internationals, many Scots and Irish previously played in, and captained, the England and Wales side; the current side for example includes Eoin Morgan , a Dublin-born cricketer who has represented Ireland against England at the Cricket World Cup, and captained England against Ireland in Like association football, rugby union and rugby league both developed from traditional British football games in the 19th century.

Rugby football was codified in Dissatisfaction with the governance of the sport led, in , to a number of prominent clubs establishing what would become rugby league.

The estranged clubs, based in mainly working class industrial regions of northern England, had wished to be allowed to compensate their players for missing work to play matches but they had been opposed by those clubs that were predominantly middle class and often based in the south of the country.

Subsequently, rugby league developed somewhat different rules. For much of the 20th century there was considerable antagonism towards rugby league from rugby union.

One Member of Parliament described it as "one of the longest and daftest grievances in history" with anyone over the age of 18 associated with rugby league being banned forever from rugby union.

All four teams are among the top ten in global rugby union. The Six Nations Championship played between the Home Nations, Italy and France is the premier international tournament in the northern hemisphere.

The Triple Crown is awarded to any of the Home Nations who beats the other three in that tournament. Games are also often played against the "Southern Hemisphere" quartet of South Africa , Australia , New Zealand , and Argentina —as well as other rugby playing countries.

England won the Rugby World Cup , the first victory in the competition by a British team or, for that matter, any Northern Hemisphere country , and were runners-up to Australia in and South Africa in In , Wales achieved a best of third place and in , Scotland a best of fourth place.

Ireland has not progressed beyond the quarter finals. Rugby union is generally regarded as the national sport of Wales. England organises its own national league in Premiership Rugby , which launched the Premiership Rugby Cup in —19 to replace the former Anglo-Welsh Cup , which had begun as an England-only competition but included Welsh teams from until its demise in The other Home Nations now have a single professional league, currently known as the Guinness Pro14 , that also includes teams from Italy and South Africa.

Attendances at club rugby in England have risen strongly since the sport went professional; by contrast, the professional era has had a traumatic effect on the traditional structure of club rugby in Wales, Scotland and Ireland.

There was some talk of the regions being redrawn, with the North being divided in two and the South being absorbed into the West and East regions, but two Italian sides instead took the vacated places, and still later the competition added two South African sides.

All of the home nations play in large, state-of-the-art venues. The four home nations also field national sevens teams.

In a contrast with football, the participation of Great Britain sevens teams at the Olympics was endorsed by World Rugby then known as the International Rugby Board in Overall rugby league is a smaller sport than rugby union in the United Kingdom , but it draws healthy crowds in its heartlands in Yorkshire and North West England , and is popular with armchair sports fans nationwide.

Before the reorganisation, London Broncos competed in Super League. Until , automatic promotion and relegation existed between Super League and the Championship when it was replaced by three-year licences for clubs to play in the former.

Promotion and relegation returned to Super League and the Championship in The main knock-out competition is the Challenge Cup , which also includes clubs from France and Canada , and in the past has also included clubs from Russia.

Rugby league is also played as an amateur sport, especially in the heartland areas, where the game is administered by BARLA.

Since the rugby union authorities ended the discrimination against playing rugby league amateur numbers in the sport have increased, particularly outside the heartland areas.

Through competitions such as the Rugby League Conference the sport is heading towards a national spread, at amateur level at least. For many tournaments the home nations are combined to compete as Great Britain.

The Great Britain team won the Rugby league World Cup in , and , but England and Wales now compete separately in this tournament and Australia have won every World Cup since except in , when they were upset in the final by New Zealand.

The Great Britain team is retained for some competitions, such as with Australia and New Zealand in the recently founded Tri-Nations competition, and in test series such as the Ashes against Australia and the Baskerville Shield against New Zealand.

In , the United Kingdom hosted the Rugby league World Cup for the 5th time, with England and Wales officially serving as joint hosts.

Ice hockey is the only team sport to have a United Kingdom-wide league with at least one team from every nation.

It has a long history in the United Kingdom and it is reasonably well supported, with the larger teams attracting thousands of fans to every game.

Media support for ice hockey has improved on a national level, although the majority of news is still found on the internet. Following this Premier Sports picked up the mantle for a number of seasons.

The league currently ranks 12th in Europe. Gaelic games such as Gaelic football and hurling are organised on an all-Ireland basis and are highly popular in Northern Ireland, with a smaller presence in Great Britain.

They are regulated by the Gaelic Athletic Association. Antrim are the only Northern Ireland team in the first tier. The female equivalent of hurling is called camogie and is played by teams from Northern Irish and London.

Gaelic handball with its roots in Scotland is still played at a competitive level in Northern Ireland. Composite rules shinty-hurling is a hybrid sport which was developed to facilitate international matches between shinty players and hurling players.

Field hockey is the second most popular team recreational sport in the United Kingdom. While hockey receives widespread television coverage during the Olympics, coverage outside that is small, especially relative to its participation level.

Shinty or camanachd is an amateur sport indigenous to the Scottish Highlands. Although it is mostly restricted to this area it is highly popular within the Highlands, sometimes attracting crowds numbering thousands in what is the most sparsely populated region of the United Kingdom.

It is administered by the Camanachd Association. Its main trophies are the Camanachd Cup [28] and the Premier Division. There are clubs in Edinburgh, Glasgow and London however and it was once played throughout Scotland and England until the early 20th Century.

Australian rules football is a growing amateur sport in the United Kingdom. The Grand Final is an event that regularly attracts growing audience of up to 5, Great Britain has a national team the British Bulldogs , it regularly competes in international matches and has competed in the Australian Football International Cup since its inception in Exhibition matches are regularly scheduled for The Oval in London, and despite the fact that few Britons know of the sport, the most recent match attracted a record crowd of 18, [2].

Premier, 1 and 2, with Premier and 1 divided into a North and South conference with Coventry being the Most Southern of the Northern teams while division 2 is further split into 4 conferences, North becoming North Scotland and Carlisle and Central and the South being split into East and West.

The Championship participants are promoted to the divisions above and the lowest-ranking teams in each division are relegated.

Previously, many of these teams competed in the BAFL which entered administration in The national team is known as the GB Lions and represents the United Kingdom in international gridiron.

Despite the minor status of the sport in the United Kingdom, the NFL has played at least one game each season at Wembley Stadium since Wembley has hosted multiple games in each season since , and the series has since expanded to include other locations in London.

Twickenham began hosting NFL games in , and the primary site for London games will switch from Wembley to the new Tottenham Hotspur stadium once it opens in Once invented in England, bandy has been virtually unknown in the United Kingdom for most of the 20th Century, but this hockey sport played on ice with rules similar to football has been taken up again.

There are plans to form a national team for the Bandy World Championship. Basketball is a minor sport in the United Kingdom.

While following an American franchise format rather than using promotion and relegation like most European leagues, the majority of recent additions have come from the English league.

As with football, the home nations teams were encouraged to work together for the Olympics, while British international basketball teams have not achieved any major successes since then, FIBA officials stated that if they re-entered the European competition after the Olympics as individual nations, they will be treated as unranked newcomers.

As with American football the NBA have arranged regular season matches in London for several years now, the most recent being a game between the Boston Celtics and Philadelphia 76ers at the O2 Arena , London.

The idea of a single team or pair of teams relocating to London and Berlin was dismissed as uneconomical due to the distances involved for away fixtures.

A piece on the web outlet of US sports media giant ESPN explored why British basketball has so far failed to develop players to the degree of countries such as France, Germany and Australia.

A survey by Sport England found that basketball was the third most-played sport among the 14—25 age group in England, just behind rugby union in numbers—but both sports combined have less than one-third the participation of football.

Another issue is politically related. The British government provided many sports, including basketball, with major funding in advance of the Olympics.

The sport also currently lacks private funding, with Amaechi claiming that many British BBL players are not paid living wages. Finally, until very recent years, British players were reluctant to develop themselves in the more competitive leagues of continental Europe.

Motorcycle speedway , usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.

Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually consisting of dirt or loosely packed shale.

The United Kingdom has three domestic leagues, the Elite League. The Speedway Grand Prix is the main world championship for standalone riders with an event taking place in Cardiff each year.

Rounders is a bat-and-ball base-running game played on a diamond. A maximum of nine players are allowed to field at any time.

Touch or Touch Rugby is a limited-contact sport variant of rugby football. It is typically played with a mixed-gender team of six three men and three women , with single-gender and age group variants.

Teams play on a 70m by 50m pitch with rolling substitutions. There are no set pieces e. Scores are made by grounding the ball over the scoreline as in Rugby Union or League; a team is allowed six touches in possession to attempt a score before the ball is turned over to the opposition.

More than a thousand players across over 40 clubs [37] are registered to play in these competitions.

There are also substantial local and regional competitions, many run with the involvement of O2 Touch. Athletics does not have a very high profile in Britain on a week-in week-out basis, but it leaps to prominence during major championships.

The level of attention received by successful British athletes is illustrated by the fact that athletes have won far more BBC Sports Personality of the Year awards than practitioners of any other sport.

There are also semi-independent athletics associations in each of the home nations. Over the last few decades British athletes have usually won between one and three gold medals at the Olympics; the Games in London saw three British athletes win four golds single golds by Jessica Ennis and Greg Rutherford , and two by Mo Farah.

However, there remain serious concerns about the depth of the sport in Britain, with the number of club athletes reportedly in decline.

Two high-profile annual athletics events are the London Marathon and the Great North Run , which is a half marathon. The United Kingdom played a key role in the evolution of modern boxing , with the codification of the rules of the sport known as the Queensberry Rules , named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in Some of the best contemporary British boxers included; super-middleweight champion Joe Calzaghe , featherweight champion Naseem Hamed , and heavyweight champion Lennox Lewis.

British professional boxing offers some of the largest purses outside the United States to a few elite professional boxers who become nationally known.

British heavyweight contenders are especially popular, but most British world champions have fought in the middle weight bracket.

The governing body of professional boxing is the British Boxing Board of Control. It is generally felt that British professional boxing is in decline in the early years of the 21st century.

The reasons for this include: Amateur boxing is governed by separate bodies in each home nation. At Olympic, World and European events, home nation boxers with the exception of N.

Ireland compete under the GB podium squad banner. The amateur sport is steadily recovering from a decline that reached a peak in the late s, with dramatic increases in boxer numbers driven by recent GB podium squad success, most notably at the London Olympics.

Mixed martial arts MMA has come a huge way. The sport was on the verge of being sent into oblivion in the early s but has since clawed its way back and become one of the most popular sports in the USA.

It is hard to pinpoint the main reason why exactly this has happened. The stereotype of extreme violence that they have been unable to shake off?

However, things slowly started to change when Michael Bisping came onto the scene and won The Ultimate Fighter 3.

The 2 winners of The Ultimate Fighter: A Champion Will Be Crowned. Britain had limited success with cycle racing in the 20th century.

This has changed when the performance director of British Cycling Peter Keen formerly coach of Chris Boardman and later appointed in as performance director with UK Sport obtained lottery funding which helped cycling at both grass roots and at an elite level.

The first fruits of the programme were harvested in Other successes include Rebecca Romero and Victoria Pendleton.

This newfound British success continued with Chris Froome winning four of the next five Tours , , , , followed by Geraint Thomas taking victory in Emma Pooley won the world road time trial championship in Cycle racing is organised by British Cycling , who govern most cycling events in the United Kingdom and organise the national team.

The success of British Cycling and Team Sky has increased dramatically the popularity of the sport in the UK which has brought in more sponsors into the sport.

A lot of cyclists take part in the many sportives organized all over the country including the hugely popular Ride London event which. Modern competitive golf originated in Scotland.

In the early 20th century British golfers were the best in the world, winning nearly all of the US Open championships before World War I.

American golfers later became dominant, but Britain has continued to produce leading golfers, with an especially strong period in the s and s.

There are usually more British golfers than others in the top of the Official World Golf Ranking relative to population, that is to say more than a fifth as many.

In May , fellow Englishman Luke Donald reached the top of the rankings, and by the end of that year became the first golfer in history to top the money lists of both the PGA and European Tours in the same season.

Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the United Kingdom. In international team competition the United Kingdom provides a large part of the European Ryder Cup team, which has beaten the United States team in seven of the last eight events.

Tennis is yet another sport which originated in the United Kingdom, first originating in the city of Birmingham between and as a more open variant of the historical real tennis , or Royal tennis, often associated with the Tudor monarchy of Henry VIII of England.

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